الأربعاء، 20 أغسطس، 2014
الثلاثاء، 19 أغسطس، 2014
A new shining capital
writes Mohsen Zahran
To save Cairo, and spur the development of Egypt on the national scale, there is no reason to delay in making the appropriate plans and setting to work on building a new capital city,
I have long held that securing a bright future for Egypt rests on a comprehensive integrated strategy for stimulating the wheels of growth and development. Such a strategy must engage a scientifically sound approach and an ambitious national plan for targeted human resource development that encompasses all political, urbanisation, social, economic, development and cultural realms. We are all morally bound to share in the bold and daring fight to overcome the gruelling difficulties and hardships that result from the forces of underdevelopment, the high population growth rates that compound general deterioration, sluggish economic and social development, high unemployment rates, spread of informal urban settlements, shortages in food and shelter, closed horizons and the dissipation of the hopes of younger generations.
One of the facts established by the numerous scientific conferences and workshops and intellectual meetings in which I have taken part is that we must redistribute our populace away from the traditional Nile Delta and Nile Valley axis, where 95 per cent of Egypt’s 83 million people are densely concentrated, leaving 95 per cent of our country’s approximately one million square kilometres uninhabited and a lure to others’ greed. The demographic redistribution across all quarters of our territory to the south, north, east and west, in the framework of a national network of transportation grids, urbanisation and production, as laid out in a comprehensive national development plan, will accomplish national strategic goals in security, safety, sustainable development and growth in the unipolar world of this current era of globalisation.
One is dumbfounded by what we do to ourselves. Our duties to honesty and scientific objectivity compel us to acknowledge that the construction of 22 satellite cities around old cities, with plans for new ones down the line, is not the answer. Rather than alleviating our problem, these schemes will generate further deterioration and crises, spur greed and speculation, and exacerbate the problems of housing shortages, informal settlements and rising prices.
A bold national urban development project should require plans to create new corridors and nuclei that will attract development and, more crucially, that are dispersed across our national territory far away from the current octopus-like urban sprawls. We could begin with the 1,100 kilometre long urbanisation artery along the north coast and another 1,300 kilometre long artery along the Red Sea mountains, and then gradually proceed to develop and integrate new arteries elsewhere across the country, taking advantage of local natural resources, environmental features and economic potentials, aiming to complete a grid covering our entire territory by 2050.
The first pioneering urban corridor in this region arose in tandem with the construction of the Suez Canal, which was opened in 1869. It led to the construction of the three Canal Zone cities, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, linked together by an urban artery supported by a network of roads, railroads and communications facilities. That was a quintessential model of the linkage between an economic aim and an urban development aim. As attested by the documents of the Suez Canal Company that would later be nationalised, the project accomplished numerous local, national and international goals, while drawing the urban development movement eastward away from the Nile Valley and Delta and giving birth to a dynamic artery for habitation, commerce and transportation. It was an unprecedented feat that overturned the history of Egypt, the region and the world.
It seems as though one must forever despair at the opportunities lost. After the October 1973 war, a new dawn broke with golden rays promising rapid growth and development, engaging billions of dollars in the development of new infrastructure and the construction of dozens of new cities, especially around the capital. Unfortunately, those investments and works at the time were not directed to the realisation of a brave and ambitious urban development strategy aiming to create new urban and industrial corridors away from the overcrowded Nile Valley so as to open new horizons for a poor developing people whose hopes and dreams had been deferred for the sake of helping others and were now dissipated again due to the lack of vision, much talk and little action.
Reality does not lie. In spite of huge outlays and expenditures following the adoption of the “Open Door Policy”, we have yet to develop a bold, unconventional comprehensive urban development vision. Instead of planning for new and promising urban corridors and pioneering development nuclei we have repeated the same mistakes and consequent ills of the satellite cities in other countries. Is it possible that, as of yet, there is no comprehensive plan for Greater Cairo, binding on all, in spite of the numerous plans that have been drawn up but were never authorised and implemented? Does it make sense to construct rings of new cities, all connected to the mother city with umbilical cords and perpetually feeding on it, aggravating the conditions of a capital that is already strained and reeling under enormous pressures? Some have even volunteered the idea of linking the new cities to the metro and bus lines, a suggestion that promises to only make matters far worse. The government spends billions on constructing overpasses and tunnels for cars and metros in the hope of alleviating the urban ailments that we, ourselves, have created and that have given rise to the spreading tentacles of informal settlements, suffocating urban congestion and a permanent haze of pollution. Is there some unwritten rule stating that we should permit construction around ring roads as soon as they are completed, only to begin construction of other ring roads further out in endless waves of expansion, in spite of the fact that we know that we should prohibit construction near the ring roads so as to develop the green belt that we have been talking about since the 1980s? It is as though we are set upon forever battling with accumulating symptoms, narrowly escaping disaster and muttering supplications.
Greater Cairo is being strangled by one ring after another, each bringing new woes. We will continue to suffer from these until eventually we wake up and opt for the rational, scientific approach and proper strategic planning. The experiences of other countries, both developed and developing, have proven that new cities should be built well away from parent cities so that they can mature healthily and become independent and self-sufficient. These experiences also show that when new cities are built close to parent cities they turn into commuter towns or bedroom communities that empty out during the day. Even if factories and commercial centres are built to create jobs, these new cities cannot compete with the pull of the larger parent cities. The thousands of empty housing units that inhabit our new cities testify to this. Perhaps, at least, it would have made sense to link employment in new jobs in the factories of the new cities to a commitment on the part of the employee to live there so as not to defeat the purpose of their construction.
Some countries have followed an approach that has proved successful: creating new capitals and administrative centres far away from the old capital. A prime example is Brasilia, the planning and construction of which began in the 1950s in a vast unpopulated area well out of reach from the urban pull of San Paolo and Rio de Janeiro. The construction of Washington as a capital city in the US certainly did not halt expansion and the rise of major cities such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago or San Francisco, each of which is thriving, unique in character, and capable of sustaining their pioneering civilisational contributions. The same applies to Ottawa in Canada, Melbourne in Australia, Ankara and Turkey and Bonn in former West Germany. In like manner, building a new capital for Egypt will not diminish the brilliance of Cairo and its pioneering civilisational role.
The time has come to put an end to the cancerous urban growth of Greater Cairo that now houses 20 per cent of Egypt’s population. This mega polis monopolises the lion’s share of national investment per capita, yet it continues to buckle under the weight of sprawling slums, congested roads, and deteriorating services and infrastructure while it gobbles up the agricultural land around it. Why do we blindly and blithely keep inflicting this harm on ourselves? How can we allow ourselves to persist in this waste of labour and money?
The idea of building a new capital for Egypt has been discussed since the 1950s. At one point, the government made an attempt to create an alternative administrative capital in Sadat City. The idea was soon abandoned and the empty ministry buildings were turned to educational purposes.
Now, the idea should no longer be put off or ignored. The current policy of the government emphases change, reform, decentralisation and eliminating red tape. Serious and encouraging steps have been taken in this direction. Provincial governors have been delegated a number of ministerial powers enabling them to set into motion the constructions of new urban and development corridors and nuclei. But radical change is needed in development planning, policies, programmes and projects at all levels and in all fields.
The location of a new capital city must be carefully chosen. Above all, it must be situated at a sufficient distance from Greater Cairo to prevent the rise of more bedroom communities that feed off the mother city, and to ensure the practical realisation of the goal of decentralisation. The construction of Heliopolis over a hundred years ago was, for its time, a pioneering venture in urban development that was carried out with little cost to the state. The same applied to Maadi and Moqattam. The crucial point is to identify the aim, the feeling and the specifications of the new capital, and to choose a location that offers the best possible potential for communications, energy, transportation networks, buildings, businesses and all the other ingredients for a healthy vibrant life. Also to ensure the independence of the city and its ability to thrive, it will be important to ascertain that the land in the surrounding desert areas can be reclaimed and put under cultivation so as to provide the city’s inhabitants with food and clean air.
Cairo will have nothing to fear. Its eternal light will not dim. In fact, it will have a chance to shine brighter once we alleviate it of its chronic ailments and burdens. Meanwhile, the new city will perform its intended role and functions, becoming a true seat of government complete with the institutions, agencies and support services fit for a capital of Egypt of the future. Naturally, the project can be carried out in phases over time and space. For example, we can begin with the government agencies that do not interact with the public on a daily basis, such as the presidency, some government administrations, embassies, research centres, private universities and high tech industries. In our computerised age of internet communications, there is no longer any need for government agencies and institutions to be clumped together. Global transnational companies manage their daily activities from continents away. The same applies to the world’s major newspapers that are printed and distributed in various spots on the globe at the same time. Our technocratic era has erased the borders of time and place in the global village of today.
Reflecting this spirit, Egypt’s new capital must be more than just an administrative centre. It should incorporate science parks, industrial parks, business and management parks, entertainment and recreation parks and other diverse and modern features that give it the unique and attractive character that we would like to see in our capital of the future. It is important to ensure that its activities are diverse, organised into diverse hubs, like pearls woven together by a solid, efficient and elegant fabric of state-of-the-art transportation and communications networks, services and utilities, and other such features that will give life to our dreams for a new, prosperous and trailblazing Egypt.
As a temporary step, we might consider turning one of our promising existing cities, such as Alexandria, Sharm El-Sheikh or Luxor into an interim capital until the new capital of our dreams is sufficiently prepared to take off. The crucial point is that the idea of creating a new capital for our country is consistent with the nature of the challenges and promises of the 21st century. We can no longer afford to procrastinate. We need to forge ahead with the type of great dreams and innovative projects that help guard the safety, security and stability of nations and fulfil the hopes and aspirations that are shared by people everywhere.
If we agree to summon our resolve, we must renew the covenant with a state that protects without intimidating, invests but does not squander, disseminates peace and works make people’s hopes and dreams come true. Accordingly, this requires introducing and implementing the necessary changes in all the political, legislative and regulatory frameworks governing development, the economy, culture, the environment, society and other crucial aspects of life without delay.
الأحد، 10 أغسطس، 2014
الخميس، 7 أغسطس، 2014
إمتحانات قسم الهندسة الكهربائية 2013 ترم أول وثانى جميع الفرق
الأربعاء، 6 أغسطس، 2014
إمتحانات قسم هندسة الانتاج 2013 ترم أول وثانى جميع الفرق
- Advanced Machine Tools
- Automatic control
- Engineering Management
- Knowledge Engineering
- اختيار مواد هندسية
- انظمة القياس المتقدمة
- تكنولوجيا التشغيل المتقدم
Title: Using the Earned Value Management System to Measure and Improve Construction Project Control.
Author : Eman Ibrahim Abd El-Latif
Collection : M.Sc. Structural
Project control is a key factor in ensuring that business and project objectives are achieved through the provision of accurate and efficient information to support informed decision making.
Project control encompasses planning, scheduling and cost control activities. Although this report focuses on project cost control and various methods of cost control used in projects construction.
Cost control considered as a process where the construction cost of the project is managed through the best methods and techniques so that the contractor does not suffer losses when carrying out the activities of the project.
Therefore, the cost control and management is more complicated and has multiple levels.
Once the construction cost is out of control, it will lead to a great waste and will bring about more pressures for property management in later. A nice cost control is meaningful for the whole construction projects. To realize better cost control and management of construction project is important for today’s harmonious society.
In a perfect world, everything functions as it should. In the real world of project control, the tale is often less than perfect with numerous obstacles and disappointments.
Project cost control seems to be simple in theory, but difficult to do in practice, many factors are causing a gap between cost control theory and practice.Some of those factors will be presented in that report. One of the aims of cost control is to construct at the cheapest possible costs consistent with the project objectives.In that way Earned Value Management method is considered as the optimal method for controlling the project costs. The term ”Earned Value” is gaining in popularity around project management circles. The name implies a something that is gained through some effort. It has been in use since the 1960s when the Department of Defense adopted it as a standard method of measuring project performance on the factory floor. The report will present how to apply this useful project management tool and point the way to make it work.
EVM is an effective project controlling tool but it’s success relies on the existence of an effective plan. Its system is a significant positive predictor of project success. The method, if to be used efficiently, require a disciplined approach to collection of data on project cost and progress ( on weekly or monthly basis) and findings to be processed immediately.
Traditional EVM techniques are intended for ideal scheduling scenarios and those techniques fail to obtain accurate indicators to reflect project performance status.
However, EVM considered that the difference between amount of the cumulative earned value and amount of the cumulative planned value as the schedule variance (SV); and this measurement of the schedule variance is not related to time.
So it is needed for a simple tool to assess progress in the terms of time. Thus, A modification of the method, to allow for time analysis, is to be illustrated in this report.
Title: Applications of Nuclear Engineering.
Author : Ahmed Amr Mohamed Sabry Abd El-Aziz Sultan
Collection : M.Sc. Nuclear
Accidental and illegal marine pollution in the Mediterranean Sea constitutes a major threat to the marine environment. Previous incidents in the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf have resulted in environmental and economic damages to fisheries, to the tourist industry and to coastal marine ecosystems. Oil-pollution discharges in the Mediterranean Sea and Arabian Gulf from ships and sometimes the coastline power plants have been described as significant and are a cause of environmental degradation in the seas of the Middle East region. To prevent the major impact of accidental oil spills, local and regional preparedness and response plans recommend the use of computer-aided support systems based on operational oceanography and real-time ocean forecasts and real-time ocean forecasts coupled with satellites images and oil-spill models.
In this study, these models were used to predict the movement of oil spills which were caused by a hypothetical tanker accident and coastline power plants on the Levantine Basin (sub region in the Mediterranean Sea) and the Arabian Gulf. The European program (MIDSLIK) was used to simulate four oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea near to the north coast of Egypt. Some of these accidents were caused by tankers and others by coastline power stations such as Abu Qir power station in Alexandria. This program incorporates the use of forecasts developed under MFS (Mediterranean forecasting system) program for the whole Mediterranean Sea and its sub-regions (Levantine Basin). It uses a modified version of Mackay’s fate algorithms for evaporation and emulsification and the dispersion algorithm of Buist and Mackay. Moreover, the American program (GNOME) was used in this study to simulate an oil spill occurred on the Iranian coastline on the Arabian Gulf after an accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant after an earthquake occurred. It is also used to simulate an oil spill caused by a tanker near to Baraka Nuclear Power Plant in the United Arab Emirates. The world worst oil spills occurred since 1967 and its sources are presented in this study.
The thesis contains an analysis of oil impact on the performance of a nuclear power plant; starting from the effect on the inlet cooling water of the condenser in the secondary circuit of the reactor and ending with the effect on the primary circuit parameters and reactor power. This analysis depends on computer model of the reactor condenser which is designed by using MATLAB and SIMULINK. Moreover, a mathematical model for predicting the dynamic response of the H. B. Robinson pressurized water reactor plant (Primary circuit) is formulated and simulated by
POL YMATH software. Also this part contains an explanation of the functions of the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS) which is used to contain this impact. This part includes technical and operational specifications of a PWR.
from the calculations in this study, some conclusions and recommendations were concluded to help in the containment countermeasure plans to prevent the damage of oil spill accidents in the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf in the Middle East and also to support decision maker with predictions of oil fate and dispersion.