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الأربعاء، 5 نوفمبر، 2014

Studies on the Consequences of the Chemical Interactions Occurring in the Cores of Nuclear Reactors

Title: Studies on the Consequences of the Chemical Interactions Occurring in the Cores of Nuclear Reactors
Author        : Peter Elhamy Ishak
Collection   : M.Sc.Chemistry
Abstract:
Among the different branches pertaining to radiation chemistry, chemical reactions In irradiated water and aqueous systems are of particular interest due to their importance in irradiated biological and chemical systems as well as in nuclear energy development. For decades ago, nuclear energy has been used through the use of nuclear power reactor for electricity production until now around 17of the total universal production of electricity is supplied by nuclear power reactors. In these reactors, water is used as coolant and lor moderators in the reactor core and other systems eg steam generator, primary and secondary circuits in the reactor. Moreover, most of the processes, carried out for the production of nuclear fuels and for separation of fission products from spent fuel are performed in aqueous media. The atmosphere of a nuclear power reactor core is characterized by very high pressure, large thermal gradients, intense nuclear radiations, all of which place very stringent demands on the materials of reactor components. A nuclear reactor is a powerful source of neutrons, gamma quanta, alpha and beta particles and fission fragments. Radiation chemical interaction in aqueous systems is closely related to some important issues addressed in nuclear energy reactors such as zircaloy corrosion, formation of insoluble corrosion products or cruds, stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel in boiling water reactors (BWR), radiation corrosion of construction materials and in radioactive waste operations management. Water radiolysis is still up till now a controversial problem particularly water chemistry of primary coolant systems in light water reactors (L WR), especially in BWRs. Oxygen arising from radiolysis of the reactor water in core affects to a large extent, as an oxidizing agent, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) so also are the other chemical species produced by radiolysis of water. Power reactor systems are very numerous and very much complicated. In the essential part of these reactors such as the reactor core and steam generator in the primary circuit as well as in the secondary circuit where water plays an important role as coolant or moderator or both, the integrity of the construction materials are vulnerable to adverse effects related to the occurrence of undesirable destructive types of corrosion.

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