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الثلاثاء، 25 مارس، 2014

Environmental Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Land of the Nile Delta

Title            :   Environmental Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Land of the Nile Delta
Author         : Maha Moawad Moustafa 
Collection   :  M.Sc. irrigation and Hydraulics 

Abstract:  
Sea level is rising now due to the rise of global temperature causing the melting of ice at the poles and on the mountains. The rise of sea level might drowning some low land in the world. Parts of the Nile Delta are expected to suffer and might be drowned unless certain precautions to be taken. One of the dangerous effects of the sea level rise is the salt water intrusion under the delta. The expected sea level rise at the coastal area of the delta is about 1. 0 m by the end of this century Mohamed, (2004)(50). However, in this research work, it is be assumed that the sea level rise varies between 1.5m, and 2.0m.This means that a part of the delta might be drowned by water up to contour 2.
The effect of Sea level rise can be concluded in the following points:
1. Drowning of the international road between Rosetta and Port Said.
2. Drowning the low land between the coast and contour 2.
3. Due to the expected sea level rise it is preferable not pump ground water in the areas between sea level and contour 5.
4. The lakes connected to the sea will be covered by salt water affecting the fish and changing the natural life inside these lakes.
5. The draining system in the delta will be affected as the drains discharge their flow into the lakes.
6. The agricultural area will be badly affected due to drowning the low land.
7. Ground water usage in the Delta will be limited due to increase of the salt water.
To protect the delta the following steps should considered:
• The international road level should be increased to at least 4.0 m above the existing sea level, and this road should be designed to be safe against seepage and effect of waves to prevent passing of water from the sea (case of Mohamed Ali wall at El-Meadia). The inlets of the lakes should be controlled by gates and pump station to keep its water level as it is now similar to the pumps used in Maryout Lake. If the inlets of the lakes are not controlled, an embankment of height 4.0m should be made all around the lakes to prevent the sea water from passing to the land. Pumping the ground water from the delta should be prohibited up to ground level 5m with keeping irrigation water with sufficient amount in the area between the sea and ground level 5 to keep the intruded salt water down enough.

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