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الثلاثاء، 25 مارس، 2014

The Detection of Hydrogen in Metals Using Neutron Interactions

Title:   The Detection of Hydrogen in Metals Using Neutron Interactions
Author         :  Mohamed Hatem Hashem
Collection   :  Ph.D. Nuclear 
Abstract:  
Water is universally present and so is hydrogen. Because of its small atomic size the hydrogen atom can relatively easily diffuse into a host metal and although the metal may appear fine for a while, it will suddenly lose its strength and ductility. Thus, measuring hydrogen content in metals is important in many fields of the nuclear industry to automobiles and aircraft fabrication especially in the offshore oil and gas fields. Nuclear methods for measuring the content of hydrogen in metals have been proven to achieve sensitivity levels of the order of parts per million. By rising the industrial progress toward the employment of computer in order to model the tangible problems by using special software in this field. One such computational software for radiation transport modeling is the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. However, no comprehensive document has been written to introduce the use of the MCNP code for simulating the hydrogen concentration in metal problem. This document, a primer, addresses the need of using a neutron source to monitor the hydrogen concentration in the metal in-situ through the basic use of MCNP and its particular application. This is by model an example, the hydrogen atom is distributed along the grain boundaries in steel. The aim that from the example is illustrating the hydrogen concentration relative to neutron counts in the designed setup. These examples along with the instructions for reproducing them are the results of this thesis research.

Nuclear Reactor Core Monitoring and Optimization

Title            :   Nuclear Reactor Core Monitoring and Optimization
Author         :  Mohamed Taha Ali Mahady
Collection   :  M.Sc. Nuclear 
Abstract:  
During the nuclear reactor operation, the control rod position, the boron concentration, the moderator density and the coolant temperature are among the important variable parameters whose values have to be considered by the operator in order to make the right decision. Any changes in these parameters in addition to the other reactor ones affect the key parameters, namely, the radial form factor, the average discharge irradiation, and the multiplication factor. These key parameters in turn have to be optimized in order to achieve the reactor objective function which is a function normally derived from the key parameters and able to achieve the safety and operation principles. In this work, artificial neural network method has been applied at the beginning of the fuel cycle of the benchmark7 PWR 2772-MWth operating at 100% full power to predictthe control rod positions. Training of the neural network has been based on the outputs of Triton code which is a multi-group diffusion depletion code in three dimensions, with criticality searches, written in FORTRAN. Results show that control rod positions predicted by neutral network get closer to the actual positions whenever the control rod is more inserted inside the core. Triton code was also used to obtain the effective multiplication factor (keff) depending on control rod position, boron concentration, moderator density, and coolant temperature. The WEKA(Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) data mining soft ware made use of these data to for mulatea mathematical expression describing the relationship between the key parameter- and the mentioned variable parameters. Finally the genetic algorithms were utilized to optimize the value of the effective <multiplication factor(keff).Criticality was found to be achieved when the control rod was 25% inserted with a boron concentration equal to 1200 ppm and moderator density equal to 0.7125 gm/crrr’

Burn up Credit in Criticality Safety of PWR Spent Fuel

Title            :   Burn up Credit in Criticality Safety of PWR Spent Fuel
Author         Rowayda Fayez Mahmoud
Collection   M.Sc. Nuclear 

Abstract:  
The criticality safety calculations were performed for a proposed design of a wet spent fuel storage pool. This pool will be used for the storage of spent fuel discharged from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The mathematical model based on the international validated Codes, WIMS-5 and MCNP-5 were used for calculating the effective multiplication factor, kelf, for the spent fuel stored in the pool. The library data for the multi-group neutron microscopic cross sections were used for the cell calculations. The kclf were calculated for several changes in water density, water level, assembly pitch and burn up with different initial fuel enrichment and new types and amounts of fixed absorbers. The results of the calculations confirmed that the effective multiplication factor for the spent fuel storage is sub-critical for all normal and abnormal states. The future strategy for the burn up credit recommends increasing the fuel burn up to a value greater than 55GWO/MTU, which requires new fuel composition and new fuel cladding material.

Environmental Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Land of the Nile Delta

Title            :   Environmental Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Land of the Nile Delta
Author         : Maha Moawad Moustafa 
Collection   :  M.Sc. irrigation and Hydraulics 

Abstract:  
Sea level is rising now due to the rise of global temperature causing the melting of ice at the poles and on the mountains. The rise of sea level might drowning some low land in the world. Parts of the Nile Delta are expected to suffer and might be drowned unless certain precautions to be taken. One of the dangerous effects of the sea level rise is the salt water intrusion under the delta. The expected sea level rise at the coastal area of the delta is about 1. 0 m by the end of this century Mohamed, (2004)(50). However, in this research work, it is be assumed that the sea level rise varies between 1.5m, and 2.0m.This means that a part of the delta might be drowned by water up to contour 2.
The effect of Sea level rise can be concluded in the following points:
1. Drowning of the international road between Rosetta and Port Said.
2. Drowning the low land between the coast and contour 2.
3. Due to the expected sea level rise it is preferable not pump ground water in the areas between sea level and contour 5.
4. The lakes connected to the sea will be covered by salt water affecting the fish and changing the natural life inside these lakes.
5. The draining system in the delta will be affected as the drains discharge their flow into the lakes.
6. The agricultural area will be badly affected due to drowning the low land.
7. Ground water usage in the Delta will be limited due to increase of the salt water.
To protect the delta the following steps should considered:
• The international road level should be increased to at least 4.0 m above the existing sea level, and this road should be designed to be safe against seepage and effect of waves to prevent passing of water from the sea (case of Mohamed Ali wall at El-Meadia). The inlets of the lakes should be controlled by gates and pump station to keep its water level as it is now similar to the pumps used in Maryout Lake. If the inlets of the lakes are not controlled, an embankment of height 4.0m should be made all around the lakes to prevent the sea water from passing to the land. Pumping the ground water from the delta should be prohibited up to ground level 5m with keeping irrigation water with sufficient amount in the area between the sea and ground level 5 to keep the intruded salt water down enough.

A Hybrid Time Series Forecasting Model Using Auto Regressive Integrate Moving Average and Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks

Title:   A Hybrid Time Series Forecasting Model Using Auto Regressive Integrate Moving Average and Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks
Author         :  Sherin Metwally Goda Mohamed 
Collection   M.Sc. Computer

Abstract:  
Obtaining accurate forecasting results for the time series data is an important and sometimes critical task in many fields, the theoretical and the empirical findings have suggested that combining different models can be an effective way to improve the forecasting accuracy of each individual model. Hybrid techniques that combine between linear and nonlinear forecasting models are one of the most important and the most accurate kinds of the hybrid models for time series forecasting, especially when the time series contains both linear and nonlinear patterns. These models can outperform single models. The most widely used models are the models which
combine between the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) as linear model and artificial neural network model as nonlinear model. In this thesis, we proposed a new hybrid models that combine between the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) as linear model and the stacked heterogeneous neural network as nonlinear model (SHNN). The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model can be considered as a hybrid model of two linear forecasting models which are the autoregressive model and the moving average model with an integrated test for the data stationary. Also the stacked heterogeneous neural network (SHNN) can be considered as a hybrid model of two nonlinear forecasting models which are two neural networks with different activation function at the output layer. So the proposed model is a hybrid model of these linear and nonlinear hybrid models. We also use the genetic algorithms to find the optimal structure of the network, which in turns improve the prediction accuracy of the network. The empirical results with ten well-known real data sets, some of these data sets are stationary series and the others are non-stationary ones, indicate that the proposed model can be an effective way to improve the forecasting accuracy achieved by the individual models. Therefore, it can be used as a convenient alternative model for the time series forecasting, especially when higher forecasting accuracy is needed.

Diffusion Controlled Impingement Corrosion of some Metallic Fittings

Title:   Diffusion Controlled Impingement Corrosion of some Metallic Fittings
Author         Mohamed Ahmed Fouad Mohamed
Collection   Ph.D. Chemistry 
Abstract:  
Impingement corrosion of 90 copper elbow has been investigated in relation different parameters. Rate of corrosion was expressed in terms of mass transfer coefficient. The following conclusions Mass transfer coefficient increases as solution velocity increases and decreases as rid increases. The dependence of mass transfer coefficient on Sc varies according to the range of Sc considered. Activation energy calculation reveals a value of 8.96 kCal /mol and 1l.5” kCal/mol for low and high range of Sc respectively. Mass transfer data have been these ocorrelated using dimensionless analysis for different ranges of Sc.  Dimensionless equations may be useful for the 90 copper elbow at different conditions. Flow inside 90 elbows enhances the rate of mass transfer by a factor ranges from 1.65 to 26.2 relative to flow inside straight tube which is a strong function of elbow diameter. Addition of polyethylene oxide as drag- reducing polymer inhibits the impingement corrosion rate in 90 copper elbow by 28% to 62% depending on operating conditions. The presence of suspended solids in the solution increases the impingement corrosion rate in 90 copper elbow by 3 to 13%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study on the corroded copper elbow show that maximum rate of corrosion occurred at the stagnation point. Diffusion controlled impingement corrosion of 90° stainless steel elbow depends to a great extent of surface passivity. Failure analysis of 90 copper elbow shows that fracture started III the stretched portion of the piping elbow wall. In the presence of two phase flow, the increase of mass transfer coefficient depends on the gas velocity. Further study in needed to study the effect of different elbow angles.

Dyeing Cotton by Direct Blue 14, Improvement of Washing Fastness and Final Finishing in One Process

Title            :   Dyeing Cotton by Direct Blue 14, Improvement of Washing       Fastness and Final Finishing in One Process
Author         : Shimaa Osama El-Sayed Halawa
Collection   :  M.Sc. Chemistry

Abstract:  
A new process for dyeing cotton with bad direct blue 14 dye and finishing of cotton at the same time. This process improves the dyeing properties and imparts finishing to cotton. The improved dyeing process includes color fastness to washing improved by 3.3 times and by 5 times for color change and staining respectively. The color fastness to water improved by 1.6 times and by 3.3 times for color change and staining respectively. The color fastness to alkaline perspiration improved by 3.3 times and by 2.5 times for color change and staining respectively. The color fastness to acidic perspiration improved by 1.4 times and by 2.5 times for color change and staining respectively. The color fastness to light improved from 5 to 6 times than the blank sample. The banded amine concentration of the dyed cotton is highly reduced from 101.4 mg/kg to 14.7 mg/kg which is lower by about the half than the safe carcinogenic limits. The finishing of cotton includes at first improvement in tensile strength which is increased by 4.3% for warp direction and 14.2% for weft direction. Second, this process imparts an anti crease finish to cotton. Third, cotton acquires resistance to mildew and rot. It is claimed that the cotton acquires a resistance to UV radiation as polyacrylonitrile have this property. The cotton has resistance to UV after this treatment as it is will know the polyacrylonitile is resistant to UV radiation found in sun.

Study on the use of Hair in Oil spill Removal

Title             Study on the use of Hair in Oil spill Removal
Author         Enas Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed
Collection   M.Sc. Chemistry 

Abstract:  
The objective of this work is to investigate the use of human hair, sheep hair and remnants of the army woven fiber like pullover and blanket for oil spill removal. These materials are available in Egypt as waste materials. Hair is gathered from parlors and barber shops. Remnant of second hand military blankets and second hand military knitted pullovers are widely available. Several factors have been varied to study their effect on the sorption capacity of four materials used as sorbents. These factors are: effect of sorption time, effect of sorption weight, effect of temperature on sorbent, effect of oil film thickness on sorbent, reusability of sorbent, effect of sorption / desorption. It is found that the best conditions are at sorption time 30 min that oil sorption capacity by human hair reaches 7.7 g oil / g human hair for one day weathered crude oil, 12.16 g oil / g human hair for seven days weathered crude oil and 7g oil / g human hair for gas oil. It is found that the best conditions are at sorption time 30 min the oil sorption capacity which reached a value for second hand military blanket in 30minutes of 6.2 g oil / g blanket for one day weathered crude oil, 6.5 g oil / g blanket for seven days weathered crude oil and 4.4 g oil / g blanket for gas oil and for second hand military knitted pullover are at 30 minutes the oil sorption capacity which reached a value of 8.19 g oil / g pullover fiber for one day weathered crude oil, 5.6 g oil / g pullover fiber for seven days weathered crude oil and4.94 g oil / g pullover fiber for gas oil and for sheep hair the oil sorption capacity which reached a value in 30 minutes of 9.44 g oil / g sheep hair for one day weathered crude oil, 13.4 g oil / g sheep hair for seven days weathered crude oil in 15 minutes and7.6 g oil / g sheep hair for gas oil in 30 minutes. This means that the most efficient sorbents to be used for oil spill cleanup are sheep hair and human hair, respectively then second hand military blanket and second hand military knitted pullover. Comparison between the four materials used as sorbents and tough bag as se, rice hull as agricultural waste and (Absorbed-IT filtration fabric grey colored sheet and Adsorbed-IT filtration fabric white colored sheet) as commercial sorbents is done. It is found that the sheep hair and human hair have higher sorption capacity than others.

Study on the Effect of Personal Behavior on Industrial Safety

Title             :   Study on the Effect of Personal Behavior on Industrial Safety
Author         Mohamed Mohamed Zaghloul
Collection   M.Sc. Chemistry

Abstract:  
A behavior-based approach to industrial safety management has been advocated by many authors and has been found to effectively improve safety performance in different industrial settings and on different continents. This thesis reports on the implementation of a behavior-based safety management program in tires manufacturing industry and it can be applied in all types of industries within wide range. The behavior-based safety management techniques of performance measurement, participative goal setting, and the provision of performance feedback were introduced in a carefully controlled field experiment on Pirelli tire-manufacturing Company The paper describes this experiment and explains how the program was implemented and the results explain how the personal behavior is affecting the safety over the whole organization. Behavior- based safety techniques were highly effective in bringing about improved performance in site housekeeping, but significant improvements in access to the Ergonomics behavior, which mean the good practices of body movements, during the experimental ’intervention. The thesis presents these results and discusses factors that may have contributed to the effectiveness of the techniques in the factory number of Accident across 2011

Study of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in C2/C3 Mixture Using Mathematical Model

Title:Study of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in C2/C3 Mixture Using Mathematical Model 
Author:Karim Gaber Zaki Khamis
Collection:M.Sc. Chemistry 
Abstract:  
This thesis studies the Stripping section of the Demethanizer of the C2/C3 Maximization Plant that produces C2/C3 mix which is sent to another plant to recover useful products, as CO2 content in this mix is a critical problem in the receiving plant a model is developed to simulate the stripping section of the Demethanizer. The Mathematical Model was developed using Material balance, energy balance, K-value and Enthalpy equations to describe the distillation operation, the model results were verified with actual data.Some parameters are studied to examine its effect on the CO2 content in the C2/C3 mix such as Reboiler Temperature, methane, ethane concentration in feed stream and feed rate .Also equations were predicted to describe its relation with CO2 content in the C2/C3 mix. A sensitivity analysis was made on the reboiler temperature and feed rate to determine the most effective parameter on the production rate of the C2/C3 mix.

الاثنين، 24 مارس، 2014

Synthesis of Potential Biologically Active Synthones from Cellulose Derivatives

Title:Synthesis of Potential Biologically Active Synthones from Cellulose        Derivatives 
Author        :  Georgina Nabil Samaan
Collection   : M.Sc. Chemistry
Abstract:  
In this thesis the preparation reactions, antibacterial effects of some modified cellulosic compounds were studied. The cellulosic host was used in the dialdehyde form by the oxidation to give Di-Aldehyde Cellulose (OAC). The cellulosic compounds were prepared by reaction of DAC with Ortho- Phenylene Di-Amine (OPDA) and two of its analogs namely 3,4-Di-Methyl Ortho-Phenylene Di-Arnine and 4,5-Di-Chloro Ortho-Phenylene Di-Amine. The reaction is a condensation addition reaction. A study of the reaction mechanism was carried out. It was also validated that the reaction produces a seven membered ring product. The kinetic study of the reaction focused on the variables of pH (1, 1.5,3, and 4), temperature (room temp. and 60-65°C), time (3mins up to 4 days), method of stirring (continuous and occasional), and the method of heating (heat bath or microwave). The study was carried out for all three of the OPOA analogs. The general deductions concern those experiments with bath heating and microwave heating. In bath heating as temperature increases the yield and rate of reaction increase. The pH of the medium had a negative effect on the yield and reaction rate since the reaction proceeds via nucleophilic addition which is faster in W rich conditions. However the prolonged exposure to high temperatures and low pH values causes the degradation of the products thermally and chemically. Continuous stirring caused increase in yield but destroyed the fiber form of the product, thus occasional shaking was used instead to eliminate this problem. In microwave heating the rate of the reaction was substantially higher than with bath heating and yield as high as 50% were reached in only 4 mins. The effect of pH was positive on reaction rate and yield since the severe heating by irradiation also increased the rate of degradation of the products especially at low pH values. Thus prolonged irradiation at high pH increased yield but decreased yield at low pH due to degradation. The biological activity of reaction product was studied on gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The highest biological effect was observed with DAC reacted with 340MOPOA, the second best performance was with DAC reacted with OPOA. Both showed activity with gram +ve and gram - ve bacteria. In case of OAC reacted with 45DCOPDA it showed an activity with only gram -ve bacteria and was ranked the least among the three compounds. However this could be considered as an advantage of specific antibacterial functionality of this compound against E.coli which caused a lot of common infection.

Advanced Technologies in Architecture: Biological Nano Architecture (BNA)

Title         :   Advanced Technologies in Architecture: Biological Nano Architecture (BNA)
Author        :  Maged El-Samny
Collection   :  Ph.D. Architecture

Abstract:  
The realization of new material properties has always the key to new innovative buildings. On the other hand, the proper tools to discover these properties and shaping them are the key factors in shaping new forms. In corollary, the inclusion of new materials and technologies into the design and construction processes of our buildings will enhance our architecture and combat contemporary challenges. At the beginning of this new century, architecture has gone through an exciting period of experimentations and changes in several forms and shapes. However, during the last two decades, the changes in the way of thinking and knowledge availability have increased dramatically, shifting from the information age to the knowledge society with new multidisciplinary sciences. These changes thrive on technological innovation and creativity of keen architects; however yet, it will continue to change the architectural shapes and profession. These changes and ideas will not stabilize into an optimum resolution because we are still in the melting pot for new concepts. The commercial availability of complex software and supporting hardware technologies has created a fast common global intense transferable design culture and community. Advances in the material science and new inventions have led to the discovery of new materials, and new utilizations of materials in different fields and industries. The fact that man can now manipulate matter at the nano-scale and create a customized material in respect to the bionic structures is a great achievement in the development of humanity.

Alexandria Zero Carbon City

Title             :   Alexandria Zero Carbon City
Author        :  Abd El-Aziz Farouk Abd El-Aziz Mohamed
Collection   :  Ph.D. Architecture 
Abstract:  
”Nothing else damages the earth’s environment more than our cities. As the world’s population has grown, our cities have burgeoned, and their impact on the environment worsened.” Sir: Richard Rogers, 2008 (One of the world’s leading architects & the book’s author ”Cities for a Small Planet”) Cities, like human beings, have the common nature of continuous change. Being called growth, deviation or expansions reflects the same sense ensuring that city is never in a stagnant state. Many cities around the world are facing the global problems such as the problem of running-out of fossil fuels and their increasing global demand, consequently the future of cities is limited because there is no longer enough energy to run them. It is the gap between the uses of fossil fuels and the exponential rise in the demand of energy which already resulting in the energy insecurity that will be a hallmark of life and in all countries in the next decades. Another one is the emissions of greenhouse gases arising from burning of fossil fuels to generate energy that leads to climate change and global warming. Egypt is one of the countries, in the hot arid region, that face these environmental problems. Sustainable urban development is essential to enhance the quality of life of the citizens, protect human health and to decrease the impact of cities upon resources outside the urban context. Thus, there is a need for zero-carbon cities which are urban areas powered by renewable energy techniques and technologies. This thesis aims to achieve the criteria of designing zero-carbon city and maximizing the benefits of sustainable technologies through an integrated planning and design approach. A ’bigger picture’ approach to planning and development is required to realize the benefits of preparing Egypt’s built environment for a carbon constrained future and recognize the Egyptian people the importance of the benefits of these technologies on the environment and their health. The first part of this thesis discusses the issue of the planning future sustainable cities and how to apply all the new innovative renewable energy solutions to the construction and operation of these developments. The second part explores and evaluates the effectiveness of existing and proposed carbon neutral and zero carbon development projects, and assesses whether they would be suitable for adaptation into the Egyptian built environment. The central focus of the thesis is the identification of characteristics of cutting-edge sustainable built form outcomes and illustration of their integral role in pursuing a more sustainable future for Egypt. The thesis case study in the third and fourth parts concentrates on developing of Alexandria city as a platform for a high quality of life where inhabitants can find the carbon footprint is zero. It presents the ways of new innovative strategies in the Mostafa Kamel Residential Shiakhaa, East District which generate energy from renewable resources in addition to waste-to-energy strategy which then runs an engine that generate electricity. It concerns with the transportation systems and waste collection problems which are considered the main keys to achieve zero carbon emissions that lead to zero carbon city. These renovation processes based on the site investigations and air quality measurements by resident’s questionnaire and air quality measurements tools.

The Open Cities Approach : A Prospect for Improving the Quality of Life in the City of Alexandria, Egypt

Title:   The Open Cities Approach : A Prospect for Improving the Quality of Life in the City of Alexandria, Egypt
Author:  Mai Mohamed Abdou Ibrahim Abd El-Naby
Collection   :  M.Sc. Architecture

Abstract:  
Urban development has been the focus attention of most of the planners for the past decades. It is a huge field of interest that needs not only being well studied, but also being implied to cities all over the world. In this respect, ”Open Cities” is a concept within the planning domain, which aims at providing equal services and infrastructure to its citizens as well as making cities more attractive to foreign population, who may be immigrants, visitors or investors. Hence, cities should be planned in a way to welcome populations’ and cultures’ diversity. This thesis aims at exploring the”Open Cities” approach in achieving cities’ urban development. It analyzes the spatial, socio-economic and administrative opportunities that can assist in the regaining of the cosmopolitan role of Alexandria in the 21 st century. Finally, it suggests a number of guidelines on how to incorporate this approach in the city planning and management processes in order to improve the quality of life of its residents. The procedures of achieving the research aim are the introduction of the factors of openness and those of urban development and their effects on cities to achieve the concept of ”Open Cities”.
Also, to conclude a plan that targets most of the problems facing cities, be it on the demographic, climatic, residential, commercial, social or political levels. By studying both types of factors and the relation between them, specific factors will be concluded to be used to achieve the concept of”Open Cities”.
The proposed concept and methodology of combining the factors of openness as well as these of urban development will be applied on the city of Alexandria as a case study. This will pinpoint and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach.
The presented thesis focuses on the research’s case study of applying the concept of ”Open Cities” on Alexandria, as it has always been the gateway to Egypt and the point of contact with other civilizations, especially those of the Mediterranean. From its foundational narratives to contemporary literature, Alexandria has been imagined as a cosmopolitan city, an urban space where people and cultures come into contact.

Integration of Solar Systems in Existing Residential Buildings in Alexandria, Egypt: Prospective Shift to Smart Grid Technology

Title:Integration of Solar Systems in Existing Residential Buildings in Alexandria, Egypt: Prospective Shift to Smart Grid Technology
Author :  Rana El-Bakly 
Collection   :  M.Sc. Architecture 

Abstract:  
In response to the escalating electrical power shortage in Egypt, especially in the summer months, it has been within the framework of the Egyptian power management strategy to
raise the share of renewable sources in electricity generation. Early experiences of developed countries have proven Solar Energy to be a viable and successful renewable energy source to implement within the building envelopes of existing residential buildings.
This has been the stimulator for choosing PY -generated electricity as a topic for this research paper especially for the fact that Egypt possesses an abundance of solar energy.
The paper focuses on investigating the applicability of solar PY -systems for existing residential buildings and tries to reveal possibilities of better power management strategies through upgrading the existing conventional power grids to the nowadays trending Smart Grids. The paper applies a Solar Field Survey that focuses on small residential community located in Alexandria. Egypt. Results have proven on-roof PY -systems to be very well applicable for the intended purpose. and results could even be enhanced if Smart Power Management is applied.

Ecological Architecture: Theories, Design and Applications

Title             :   Ecological Architecture: Theories, Design and Applications
Author        :  Mennat-Allah Moustafa Khalil Mandour 
Collection   :  M.Sc. Architecture

Abstract:  
Every day, rising energy costs, global warming, water shortages, limited resources, growing population and an endless number of other factors are pointing to the fact that humans are living unsustainably. Our homes, offices, schools, community meeting spaces and all other buildings have the potential to not only sustainable, but to provide free energy (through solar or wind) and water (through catchment and bioremediation) to other needs (such as transportation). The building will be made up of materials that are built to last and once not needed can be recycled for further use, we have created a space that materially has much less impact than a traditional building. In three parts, the thesis promotes the above issues in an attempt to deliver the up-to-date ideas and technologies of the 21 st century to the architect and be aware of these ecological architecture issues, which can be summarized as follows: 2. Ecological architecture tries to set a relationship between natural and artificial environment by making contribution to the preservation and improvement of all sources and biotopes while meeting physical and psychological needs of man. Ecological architecture supported by sustainability which is the form of responding today’s need and balancing the usage of sources for next generations aims at catching a harmony between man and nature. 3. Ecological and green design can provide to minimize the use of land, conserve heatin winter and cool in summer, reduce emissions of pollutants, and naturalize the landscaping. The use of land can be optimized by designing multi-storied buildings instead of sprawling ones, and by efficiently allocating internal energy use can be decreased by using passive and active solar heating technologies in winter, shading and reflecting surfaces in summer, and efficient insulation, windows, lights, and appliances; externally, trees can be positioned to provide shade in summer and wind-shielding in winter; in some cases, low-grade heat ”waste” from thermal power plants can be used in nearby buildings. 4. Applications; this part illustrates the effect of ecological design in different regions with different climates such as tropical, humid climate, in the Arab world and in Egypt through the work of different architects British architectural firm Foster + Partners, Global architectural firm HOK and Arata Isozaki and Associates Co. Ltd. The objective of this thesis is to highlight on the importance of ecology and its impact on architecture.

Elders Way finding in Public Buildings: Bridging Architecture and Neuroscience

Title:   Elders Way finding in Public Buildings: Bridging Architecture and Neuroscience                                                                                     
Author        :  Noha Ahmed Abd El-Wahab Seif
Collection   :  M.Sc. Architecture 
Abstract:  
Way finding encompasses a dynamic relationship between the navigator and built environment components, where both human and design dimensions should work together for the best experienced successful navigation independently. Architectural designs set to promote way finding as well neuroscience literature which is rich with studies about cognitive map representing the core problem solving of way finding. On the other hand, Neuroscience scientific researches mention that Architecture today is factoring our senses at various points within the design, where we - as occupants- are invited to deal with the space through our senses. Despite navigation demonstrates importance to public building use and operational efficiency, there are poor regulated settings on way finding in general and way finding design especially for elders over 65 years old with normal aging changes. Elders suffer from problematic design features which make them fail to find their way leading to lots of errors. Their poor navigation always ends with getting lost or un secure evacuation that might cause their being volunteers of death. Designers should pay extra attention to achieve the justice satisfaction of all users’ needs in way finding including old people. Besides, the percentage of elders is increasing all over the world and in Egypt on local scale making their way finding problem aggravated over time. This thesis intends to explore a structure for both dimensions of way finding: human and design. Investigating the two fields; neuroscience and architecture is inevitable in order to fully understand elders’ poor way finding. Then, the target will be to figure out the design guidelines solutions with their related impact on elders’ dimension for evidence based design in addition to discovering an existing linkage between the two fields This research investigates elders’ navigation problem with respect to its two dimensions in order to achieve successful navigation by effective way finding design components. This will be applied through understanding the characteristics of fundamental human behavior’s response to different design features. Neuroscience is the study of brain as the main controller of human behavior. Our brains guide us to navigate either in new or experienced environment which explains their complexity. In addition, there are many design elements which have different impact on different users’ categories through interaction. That’s why it will be more helpful to add design feature knowing its impact on which of users’ problem aspects. This concept will help designers to deliver the best based evidence solution. Afterwards, the research provides a rich data source for primary guidelines for way finding design components and goals critical to maximize independent navigation for older people. This concept will enhance elder navigation with respect to declined functional abilities including physical and mental dimensions in their lives. Finally, this study will present a conceptual model bridging the two disciplines: architecture and neuroscience, to ensure a new framework for architects in design when making decisions built on neurological scientific physical evidence; i.e., ”reasoning”.

تيسير الإجراءات الإدارية لمشروعات التشييد

العنوان        :   تيسير الإجراءات الإدارية لمشروعات التشييد  
المؤلف        :  فؤاد حسنى ذكى التركى
المجموعة المنتمي اليها   :  ماجستير العلوم - الهندسة الانشائية 
الملخص   

تتناول هذه الدراسة تشريعات البناء فى مصر بين النظية و التطبيق و مدى تحقيق المعايير الدولية فى التشريعات المصرية و تحديد ما بهذه التشريعات من قصور و تأثير تلك القصور على سهولة اداء اعمال البناء و مناخ الاستثمار فى مصر.
ولقد تم عمل دراسة استقصائية الهدف منها بيان الواقع الفعلى و التطبيقى لأعمال الناء و مدى مطابقة ذلك مع النصوص التشريعية المتمثلة فى قانون البناء الموحد 119 لسنة 2008.ولقد تم دراسة(حالة دراسية) لحالة العمران و مؤشرات الاسكان فى حى شرق الاسكندرية كمثال.تم عرض مدى توافق المبانى مع معايير السلامة و الامان و حالة التشطيب الداخلى و الخارجى للمبانى.و كذلك اتصال المبانى بالمرافق و عدد رخص البناء و الهدم الصادرة سنويا.

قانون البناء الموحد و سلبيات أجراءات اصدار تراخيص البناء

العنوان  :    قانون البناء الموحد و سلبيات أجراءات اصدار تراخيص البناء     
المؤلف  :   مروة محمد علي سيد أحمد  
المجموعة المنتمي اليها   :  ماجستير العلوم - الهندسة الانشائية 
الملخص
في الاونة الاخيرة انتشرت أعمال التعديات على الاراضي و البناء عليها بدون ترخيص بالبناء فهناك العديد من المواطنين الذين يقومون بالبناء بدون ترخيص مما يتسبب في الكثير من المشاكل في المباني و ينتج عنه احيانا انهيار المبنى. أما القانون 119 لسنة 2008 المعروف بأسم قانون البناء الموحد كان هدفا و أملا يداعب المواطنين بأعتبارة طوق النجاة للقضاء على الروتين و العذاب و الرشوة التي يدفعها كل راغب في البناء و صدر القانون و لكن لايزال سوق العقارات و البناء يعانى العديد من الكوارث أهمها أصدار التراخيص و أشتراطات البناء و المكاتب الاستشارية و كان القانون صدر لتعذيب المواطنين أكثر و أكثر.




Behavior of Prestressed Composite Beams Using External Cables

Title:   Behavior of Prestressed Composite Beams Using External Cables
Author        :  Moustafa Haroun Ali Ahmed Fakkar 
Collection   :  M.Sc. Structural

Abstract:  
The concept of prestressing steel structures has not been widely considered, despite a long and successful history of prestressing concrete members. Several analytical and experimental studies of externally prestressed composite beams were reported in literature. These researches did not consider the effect of partial interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam on the behavior of prestressed beams. The slippage between the cables and saddles was not analyzed in these researches. Also, the influence of long-term effects of the concrete slab and the relaxation of the cables on the behavior of externally prestressed beams with partial shear interaction was not reported in these researches. All international codes did not give design guide lines or design recommendations for externally prestressed composite beams with partial shear interaction. Also, these codes did not give design recommendations for the influence of long-term effects on the behavior of prestressed composite beams with partial shear interaction. Thus, the objective of this research is to deepen the understanding of the behavior of externally prestressed composite beams by the several of parametric study. A theoretical investigation was conducted using the finite element package COMSOL MUL TIPHYSICS. The results of the finite element model were verified by checking with previous researches in literature. In this research, some design guide lines and design recommendations of composite prestressed beams will be presented.

Behavior of Cold Formed C Section Roof Purlins with Laterally Supported Tension Flange : Experimental Study

Title:   Behavior of Cold Formed C Section Roof Purlins with Laterally Supported Tension Flange : Experimental Study
AuthorAbd El-Wahab El-Saadany 
CollectionM.Sc. Structural 
Abstract:  
Designing purl ins for roof systems attached to through-fastened panels has been a subject well researched in the past. The AISI and AS/NZS specifications are using a simplified approach to the design of these members where the fully braced moment capacity of such members is multiplied by a reduction factor (R-value) in cases of braced tension flange. This value represents the point in between of the fully braced and fully unbraced member behavior. There was a big difference between the two provisions in conditions of the R-value. The R-value changes depending mainly on section depth in AISI. However, the AS/NZS provisions depend on number of points that laterally braced for R-value determination. Design of purlins that have laterally braced tension flanges as laterally unsupported is very conservative. Since the Egyptian code had no specifications for the design of such cases, the experimental investigation was conducted in collaboration with Mancrew and Alex Steel to determine the R-value and compare the results with the values of AISI and AS/NZS. The test setup was as similar as possible to the previous R- value tests. Since AISI S 100 and AS/NZS 4600 has limitations to the design equation, comparisons were done between the test setup and the equation limitations. Based on the findings of this test program, the R-value was closer to AS/NZS provisions. For C-purlins, the R-value found to be 0.71 for depth d:S 6.5 in (165mm) and for 6.5in (165mm) < d:S 8.5in (216mm) was 0.702. No significant change happened when deeper section was used.

Suitable Selection of Delay Analysis Techniques in Construction Projects

Title:Suitable Selection of Delay Analysis Techniques in Construction Projects
AuthorIbrahim Abd El-Fatah Ibrahim Nasr 
CollectionM.Eng. Structural
Abstract:  
II is common for a construction project to encounter delays. There are several reasons that can rontribute to delaying a project. Analyzing the various causes that contribute to a project’s delay is an important task to resolve it. Determination the impact of each of those causes to the overall delay assists in helping the par- lies settle the delay claims without litigation. The high costs and risks associated with delay claims and their litigation impose development of methodologies and techniques to prevent and more efficiently resolve delay claims. Delay analysis is one of the construction industry dilemmas. Several researches and best practices have been developed to deal with this issue but none of the current techniques responds accurately to all of the four common delay issues: real time delay, concurrent delay, acceleration, and pacing delay. In addition most of the researchers did not accommodate the construction management conditions and levels. Many attempts have been presented either by researchers or professional entities such as AACE and SCL. Some researchers tried also to present expert systems to deal with the complicated issue. The main objective of this research is to present simple road map for an easy the selection of the relay analysis technique and to increase the projects stakeholders’ awareness of the required do umentations. To achieve this objective, several sub objectives were considered, and are listed here: Develop a careful understanding of the current situation in delay analysis; propose a reliable delay analysis methodologies selection advisor; Design a simple tool to facilitate the methodologies selection.

الأحد، 23 مارس، 2014

Delay Causes of Road Constuction Projects in Egypt

Title:   Delay Causes of Road Constuction Projects in Egypt
Author:  Asmaa Ali Abd El-Hakam Ali
Collection:  M.Eng. Structural
Abstract:  
Construction delays are a common Phenomenon in civil engineering projects in Egypt including road projects. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This report studied a list of construction delay causes gathered from literature having different types of construction, different countries, different periods and different numbers of delay causes and delay groups. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this report listing 293 delay causes. The questionnaire survey was distributed to 500 construction participants who represent consultants, contractor’s and site/design engineer’s excluding the owner representing the government in road projects as one party only. A number of 389 questionnaires were received and 186 responds were Suitable for analysis. , Relative Importance Index (RII) is calculated and according to the highest values the top twenty and the least twenty delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the report. The test results reveal good correlation of causes and groups between contractor’s and site/design engineer’s and between consultants and site design engineers and a somewhat low correlation between contractors and consultants. So a clear answer for the question”Are there certain delay causes that could be avoided to complete road projects without having time overruns affecting construction industry in Egypt?” was, that Causes and groups causing delays are country, location and project specific and there are no root causes that can be taking for granted to be the most effective or the least effective delay causes. Keywords: Delay causes, Delay groups, Road Construction Projects, Questionnaire, Consultants, Site/design Engineers, contractors, Relative Importance Index (RII), Egypt

Expectation of Cash Flow For Road Construction Projects in Egypt

Title:   Expectation of Cash Flow For Road Construction Projects in Egypt
AuthorRana Hazem Fouda 
CollectionM.Eng. Structural 
 Abstract:  
This paper presents a cash flow prediction model for road projects. This model based on the analysis of actual current invoices and payments data of road construction projects. Initial results indicate that this simple model predicts future cash flows better than models based on current cash flows alone. In this study the main concern is to look at highway road tender projects. This investigation could be used by road authorities who manage multiple projects. It could be used to provide a tool to forecast future project payments. Recent account summaries of General Authority for Road, Bridges and Land Transporting (GARBLT) projects from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed. This data is used for creating mathematical models representing monthly payments for various projects. Financial data for cost estimates are collected from 28 highway road tender projects (including 16 highway strengthening tender projects and 8 highway overlay tender projects). The data were organized into categories of project types and subcategories of project contract amount. A seventh degree polynomial regression analysis was run on the data and the regression curve. Statistically equations were taken to be the forecast payment curve. Finally, a computer program (Excel sheet) was developed to implement the results of the investigation. This sheet was named as Multi Road Projects Cash Flow Model (MRP _ cash flow model). The methodology provided will help all highway agencies to apply their own projects to better predict projects cash flow and trends. This investigation might also benefit researchers in projecting cash flows and trends. Also any agency could provide improvements for the model. After that the model was fitted. The tender information concept was applied to analyze and diagram cash flow estimations for the execution stage of contracted projects. The goal is to understand short-term financial demands that occur during the execution stage. Also, using this model leads to a better understanding bankruptcy of cash flow problems. The analysis of the model application is simple. All the calculations can be done with a trial balance software package such as Excel. In practice, owners of the road projects can use the model to preview the cash distribution and amount demanded before projects are executed. Once construction is under way, data from the actual project cash flow can be used to update and revise the predictions. The results of the MRP model depends on real payments data of road construction projects as mentioned above. It means that delays and ordinary obstacles are taken into account. These delays and obstacles were created by the surrounded environment. These delays has a great effect on the road construction projects as constructing of roads demands dealing with other authorities, citizens of the country, weather, natural disasters and also executing problems. Sometimes there is an unexpected obstacle that appears during the execution of road construction projects. It could be a reason of a long delay in the time table of the project. Off course this delay affects the cash flow plan of the project which is not considered in our cash flow model. Claims in construction road projects are hard to be expected and need a detailed study. So, the MRP cash flow model ignored this claims. The aim of this model is to have a future expectation of the cash flow for several road projects without taking any claims into account. This point could be a good entrance for future researches that studies cash flow expectation.