الصفحات

Alexandria Engineeing Libraries

بحث هذه المدونة الإلكترونية

شرح طريقة تحميل الامتحانات من المدونة

الثلاثاء، 5 أغسطس، 2014

Performance Enhancement of Fuzzy Based Robust Adaptive Antenna Arrays

Author        : Roshdy Korayem Roshdy Korayem
Degree        : Ph.D. Electric Communication
Title: Performance Enhancement of Fuzzy Based Robust Adaptive Antenna Arrays

Abstract
Scarcity of potable water is a world-wide problem which necessitates the application of diversified desalination technologies. These technologies are divided mainly into thermal and membrane processes. Thermal processes, however, have numerous limitations, which include high energy consumption and corrosion problems while membrane processes mainly suffer from membrane fouling and high membrane cost. Li~uid membranes (LMs), on the other hand, which have been discovered in 1968 by Li [2 , have no pores to be blocked and cannot be fouled like solid membranes. Their idea relies on separating two miscible phases (the donor phase (DP) and the receptor phase (RP)) with an immiscible LM phase, through which some chemical species can cross the LM phase whilst others are prohibited. However, their main problem is the method of containing the liquid between the two miscible but separated DP and RP.
In the present work, desalination using the present type of supported liquid membrane (SLM) and the bulk liquid membrane (BLM) techniques have been investigated in the desalination of saline water. For the SLM, a simple apparatus devised and constructed in our lab, was used to conduct the experiments. Various factors that would affect the progress of desalination were studied and these were: concentration of simulated sea water in DP, presence of emulsifier or mobile carrier (MC) in the LM, concentration of MC in LM, presence of polyelectrolyte (sequestering agent (SA)) in the RP, presence of magnetic stirring, and speed of stirring. The volume ratio ofDP to RP was kept constant at 2:1. Type and thickness of LM (1,2 dichloroethane) was kept constant. Cellophane constituted the support for the LM. The results obtained indicated that the present type of SLM desalination is not a promising technique, which requires further profound study and investigation. The most important findings emphasized the importance of the presence of a MC in the LM to enhance mass transfer through the LM and that an optimum concentration of MC existed. Also the importance of stirring in promoting mass transfer by minimizing the boundary layer adjacent to the cellophane support was clarified. The best conditions arrived at were, MC = 0.1286 g (Crown ether (CE)), SA = 0.5 g (soluble starch (S.S)), slow stirring (100 rpm) of DP and using DCE as LM, 2 mm thick. The minimum time was found to be very long, during which total desalination might have taken place.

ليست هناك تعليقات:

إرسال تعليق