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الثلاثاء، 5 أغسطس، 2014

Synthesis and characterization of Inorganic Ion Exchanger to be Utilized for Heavy Metal Decontamination from Industrial Wastewater

Author        : Eman Mohamed Mohamed El-Sayed
Degree        : Ph.D. Chemical
Title: Synthesis and characterization of Inorganic Ion Exchanger to be Utilized for Heavy Metal Decontamination from Industrial Wastewater
 Abstract
Environmentalists concern over the presence of toxic heavy metals ions in the aquatic environment stems from the fact that these metals ions are non-biodegradable and can accumulate in the living tissues, thus they may be concentrated throughout the food chain. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metal ions in wastewater inhibits biodegradation of organic pollutants, which might be present in the wastewater. Ion exchange has been used as a suitable water treatment process to remove heavy metals. Many studies have been conducted to remove these harmful heavy metals by using different ion exchange materials either organic or inorganic.
For this research, an innovative heteropolyacid salt of ion exchange material namely, nano-zirconium tungstovanadate has been synthesized. The differentiation in the physical and chemical properties of the synthesized ion exchanger based significantly on its preparation conditions. In this respect, this investigation represents comparison study on utilization both the sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques for nano-zirconium tungstovanadate synthesis. The influence of the preparation conditions, such as reaction temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and molar ratio of the reactants on the ion exchange capacity of the prepared materials have been taken into account for each preparation technique. The different synthesized ion exchange materials were compared based on both their ion exchange capacity (iEC) beside their efficiency in lead ions separation from aqueous streams by conducting batch experiments. It was revealed that the hydrothermal method was superior to the sol-gel method for producing nano particles with smaller crystalline size. Structural characterization of the most proper prepared ion exchanger was performed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX) and with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-DES).
The prepared materials were evaluated in the removal of lead ions from industrial wastewater by batch and continuous techniques. The results showed that, the prepared nano-zirconium tungstovanadate is a promising cation exchanger for lead ion decontamination from the polluted water in view of the fact that lead ion removal rate was recorded up to 99.4 within 3 hours.

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