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الثلاثاء، 5 أغسطس، 2014

The Use of Hydrogen as a Fuel for Marine Power Plants

Author        : Saad Jazi El-Balwy 
Degree        : M.Sc. Marine
Title: The Use of Hydrogen as a Fuel for Marine Power Plants 

Abstract
The current thesis aims at introducing one aspect of green energy. The use of hydrogen as fuel for marine power plants, to replace all kinds of fossil fuels which are the major responsible of harmful emissions. The current situation of fossil fuels has tremendous as well as economic situations suggested. Hydrogen is an attractive, pollution-free energy carrier, which is characterized in addition by a flexible and efficient energy conversion. Technology of hydrogen production is well developed and has advantage of practically unlimited basis of the raw materials. Hydrogen is widely produced and used, but it is now being considered for use as a catalyst for stationary power and transportation markets. Major current uses of the commercially produced hydrogen include oil refining, food production, treating metals, and producing ammonia for fertilizer and other industrial uses. In addition to the conventional hydrogen production methods of steam methane reforming and electric-powered electrolysis, a new suite of renewable production options is emerging. These include using renewable power directly for electrolysis, various biogas production options using gasification or pyrolysis processes or biomass fermentation with microorganisms. Hydrogen can be stored in three forms; gaseous, liquid or as a solid combined with a metal hybrid. The most suitable storage method is dependent upon safety aspects, environmental issues, economic criteria and the end-use of hydrogen. Significant amounts of hydrogen can be stored within high-pressure storage tanks which are similar to the storage of natural gas. The construction material properties depend on the quantity of gaseous hydrogen that can be stored in pressure vessels. In addition, hydrogen can be stored in a liquid form but it faces various competitive factors. Liquefactionprocess requires a large expenditure of energy and it should be continually kept at a low temperature. Another means of hydrogen storage is that of metal hydride storage. The advantage of the system is that hydrogen being stored as a metal at low pressure and that it stores more volume than compressed gaseous or liquid hydrogen. The current thesis is divided into six chapters: Chapter one introduces hydrogen as a fuel in marine field, hydrogen infrastructure, hydrogen fuel safety and fossil fuel emissions. Chapter two includes historical literature review of hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen history, hydrogen fuel properties, hydrogen applications and hydrogen fuel for high speed crafts were presented as well as current hydrogen market. In chapter three, hydrogen operation ill marine field has been discussed.Hydrogen as an alternative fuel, safety and regulations for hydrogen fuel, environmental considerations of hydrogen fuel, market and perspectives for marine hydrogen fuel and codes and standards for hydrogen fuel were explained. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen for marine field were explained. Chapter four focuses on hydrogen production, storage, and usage.Hydrogen production methods include steam reforming, electrolysis,gasification,biological, and Green hydrogen production.

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